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On this day in 43 BC the battle of Mutina was fought between Mark Antony and Octavian.

Text by Harry Tanton Image by Sarah Jordan Following the assassination of Julius Caesar in March 44 BC, Antony had assumed the leadership of the Caesarean party due to his friendship with the dictator. But he was directly challenged for this position by Octavian, who had been adopted by Caesar in his will and became …

On this day in AD 161, the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius died

Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Antoninus was born on 19 September, 86 on the family estate at Lanuvium, in Italy. However, his family came originally from Nemausus (modern-day Nîmes) in the province of Transalpine Gaul.

On this day in AD 192, the Roman emperor Commodus was murdered.

The emperor was strangled in his bath by Narcissus, a wrestler who was tasked with the deed by a small group of conspirators.

On this day in 43 BC, the Lex Titia was passed at Rome

The passage of the Lex Titia legalized the collective rule of three statesmen over the Roman Republic and effectively signified its demise and the rise of autocracy: by the terms of the law Lepidus, Marc Antony, and Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) formed what is known today as the Second Triumvirate.

On this day in AD138 the Emperor Hadrian died and was succeeded by Antoninus Pius.

Coming to the throne in 117, Hadrian was the third of the so-called ‘Five Good Emperors’, who were known for their peaceful and prosperous reigns. Hadrian was also well known for his love of learning and his extensive building works; he was especially loved by the Greeks, who named him as the second founder of the city of Athens because of his many building projects there.

On this day in AD175 Commodus took the toga virilis, the sign he had entered adulthood

The denarius shows Apollo leaning on a column, a type known only under this emperor.

On this day in AD221 the emperor Elagabalus adopted Severus Alexander

What prompted the notorious emperor to adopt his young cousin as his heir?

On this day in AD79 the emperor Vespasian died, aged 69.

Vespasian had achieved the position of emperor by virtue of being the last man standing in the short civil war that erupted following Nero’s suicide in June of 68 (the so-called Year of the Four Emperors).

On this day in AD 121, the emperor Marcus Aurelius was born

Born on the 26th of April 121, he was born Marcus Annius Verus to a relatively inconspicuous father of the same name who died as praetor-designate in 124, when his son was only three years old.

On this day in 195 Julia Domna was awarded the title mater castrorum

Who was this woman, and what is the significance of her title?